Kudaiberdyuly Shakarim

The first marriage of Shakarim – Mauen Besbaikyzy

Mauen Besbaikyzy – elder wife of Shakarim. Mauen was born in Besbai family in the village Baitore, which is belonged to the Torgai genus. “Grandmother Mauen was a person with a strong character; she wasn’t afraid to express her opinion and always said that she thought. Her strong character allowed her to obey only Shakarim. Grandmother seemed always very calm and neat woman. This is confirmed by memories, when turmoil reigned and all was scared going on, grandmother slowly packed suitcase” – remembered Kamila Kapyrkyzy.

There was a time when Shakarim fell in love to the young girl Aigansha from Nogai village and already going to go to matchmaking, but her father wasn’t agree with the custom to give his daughter to the family, where already was elder wife. Then Shakarim with his two true friend by approbation Aigansha took away her from the father’s family. Abai also interferes in this matter; exactly he decided that it is necessary to follow Kazakh traditions and to pay seemly “kalym” (bride buyout) but still Aigansha’s parents were against. No matter what Shakarim brought Aigansha to his home as a second wife. When Aigansha overstepped doorstep of Shakarim’s house, his first wife Mauen warm welcomed her, wherein kissed her on cheek.

Mauen gave birth to sons to Shakarim – Abusufiyan (Sufiyan) and Akhmedtaufik. Akhmedtaufik died very early, thus no memories about him keeps.


Shakarim’s descendants from elder wife Mauen Besbaikyzy

Abusufiyan (Sufiyan) (1865-1925) 

Abusufiyan (Sufiyan) is the first son of Shakarim from his elder wife Mauen.

Elder son of Shakarim in that time became famous with singing voice. His first wife was the girl Zagipa from a rich village. Their first daughter lived no long and at the age of two she died. Contemporaries having told story that Mauen, embraced dead granddaughter’s body, for a long time gave away to nobody. Grieving relatives spoke her with words “Now is summer and corpse will fast spoil”, but Mauen was depressed with grief and didn’t let go the corpse. Then Toleukhan and Zhalish took away by force the corpse of her granddaughter and buried. This deed hurt Mauen and she ordered daughters-in-law not to feed Toleukhan and Zhalish. Soon after the death of the only daughter Zagipa also died.

The second wife of Abusufiyan Sapura gave birth to daughter Maimana and son Talgatbek. Descendants of Maimana are Gaziza and Mampasi, from Talgatbek – Berigi. Shamil, Galiya and Kalima are also descendants of Shakarim from Sufiyan. There are also descendants of Shakarim from these grandchildren. Now they live in Abai region of Semey city, Karagandy region and Balkhash city.


The second of Shakarim Aigansha Makhmutkyzy

 Aigansha Makhmutkyzy is the second wife of Shakarim, to whom he got married for great love. Aigansha gave a birth five sons and three daughters to Shakarim. They are: Gabdulgafur (Gafur) (1883-1930), Gabdulla (Kabysh) (1887 – 1932), Zhibrail (he died in infancy), Gabdulakhad (Akhat) (1900-1984), Ziyat (1903-1937), Kulziya (Kampit is died at an early age), Zhakim and Gullar (Gulnar) (1912 – 1970).

Aigansha was from Nogai village. Being in a guest at Ybyrai, the son of Makhmut Shakarim was shocked by the beauty of elder daughter, which is named Aigansha. Despite the bans of the Aigansha’s family to be a second wife, the silent reproach of first wife Mauen, Shakarim decided to get married to Aigansha. Especially Aigansha sincerely loved him and wasn’t against to be his second wife. The only way out of the situation Shakarim sees stealing Aigansha from her family. This act hostile has set against Aigansha family to Shakarim. However wise instructions of Abai and negotiations of relatives let to the peace and consent between two families. Due to her suppleness Aigansha became respected daughter-in-law, who was affectionately called “Mai apa”.

After Shakarim execution Aigansha, her children Gafur and Kabysh and grandchild Bayazit were persecuted by the People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs (PCIA) and they were tortured and abused.

The information about date of death of Aigansha, unfortunately isn’t keep, even her son Akhat didn’t write about it in his memories.


Shakarim’s descendants from Aigansha Makhmutkyzy 

Gabdulgafur Shakarimuly  (1883-1930)

Gabdulgafur (Gafur) is the son of Shakarim from Aigansha. No information has been preserved about Gafur’s childhood and adolescence. Judging by a number of memories, Gafur was like his father restrained and firm. Obviously the father pay more attention to the son, he was engaged in the training and education of his son, developing a special attitude. More likely it can say that Gafur was a lovely son of Shakarim.

On February 1, 1930 Gafur was arrested for the failure to comply the surrender of meat, wool and bones. They took his son Bayazit together with him. Property and livestock were confiscated. The case of prisoners Gafur and Bayazit in Semipalatinsk prison for some reason didn’t move. Proud, freedom-loving, recalcitrant Gafur inheriting self-esteem from his father very hard carried imprisonment. He perceived physical lack of freedom as a suppression of freedom of spirit. Gaziza is a wife of his cousin Medeukhan remembered: “Gafur was a discreet man. His character was difficult. When we brought a food to the prison, usually all prisoners looked out the window. But Gafur never looked out the window. We with Medeukhan pick up our children Kamran and Alimkhan on the arms and shout “Uncle Gafur! Children came to say hello to you”. Having heard children’s voice son of hajj finally looked out to the window. That’s how last time we saw him alive”. Afterwards daughter of Gafur Kamilya has kept in memory and has written Gaziza’s memories.

According to the words of workers of Semipalatinsk prison, on July 6, 1930 Gafur cut his throat and died. This is highly suspicious version, but it is difficult to confirm or to refute it due to the absence of any evidence. After the death Gafur was buried at the station “Ulykyz” on the old road Semey-Arkhat-Ayagoz.


Gabdulla (Kabysh) Shakarimuly (1887-1932)

Gabdulla (Kabysh) Shakarimuly is a second son of Shakarim born of Aigansha. He left a mark on history as a poet and singer, successor of poetic school of Abai.

Surviving verses of Kabysh clearly demonstrated the school of great Abai. Akhat is a brother of Kabysh said about his brother: “He had more ability than we all have, but unfortunately he died ahead of time”. One of verses of Kabysh dedicated to Shakarim, which essence came down that Shakarim was versatile and respected man: scientist, hajj.

Kabysh also as all children of Shakarim didn’t avoid hard fate, also he was in prison and having escaped from the prison on the way he died from starvation in 1932. His body was found in steppe. It was found shabby notebook behind the boot shaft, where were written his last verses. Kabysh wrote in his poems that he wants to see his relatives and how he wants to eat enough bread.  From the marriage of Kabysh and Mashim Kapiyat a daughter was born, who was brought up in an orphanage.


Akhat Shakarimuly Kudaiberdiyev (1900-1984)

Kudaiberdiyev Akhat Shakarimuly is educator, poet, public figure. Akhat was born in 1900 at the foot of the mountain Chingistau. He finished Kazakh Pedagogical College in Semipalatinsk in 1927 and Kazakh Pedagogical Institute in 1935. Since 1927 till 1934 he worked as a teacher in rural high schools, in 1934-1939 he worked in Shymkent, in Zhambyl region, before 1967 he worked in schools of Almaty region. Akhat also as all relatives of Kunanbai’s generation wasn’t got around fate of arrest. Since 1969 till 1984 he was a head of the museum of Abai in Zhidebai.

During the some years Akhat was in prison, he was subjected to interrogation and flout. Akhat Shakarimuly was repressed as “enemy of the people”, “son of bandit” and exiled to Siberia. When slogan “Children haven’t to answer for fathers” came out, he has written a letter directly to Stalin, and eventually received freedom. Three attempted suicide eloquently can tell about how he survived difficulties (1931, 1932, 1937 years). Last time in 1937 it seemed all must lead to the end of torments: Akhat thrust himself in chest a needle, but … stayed alive. Subsequently it turned out that spearhead of needle miraculously stopped, reaching pericardium. Despite trials, exactly he managed to save many manuscripts of his father. In playing on dombra Akhat made musical notations of Shakarim’s songs.

Verses and songs of Akhat deeply touch on the fate of country, social position of people. Akhat was not only the son of pilgrim, but also a disciple. He often turns to the heritage of his father and spiritual teacher Shakarim. Akhat left behind rich literary heritage. Since 1915 till 1928 he has written about 130 lyrical poems. He began to write a poem when he was 15 years old. His verses “Toleutai”, “Kokand”, “Kurdastar” are very close in genre to oral literature.

Despite the accusations of Shakarim as an enemy of people Akhat didn’t stop his activity on collection of heritage his father, he collected Shakarim’s literary heritage and songs, placed it in two volumes and distributed to museums and libraries. Akhat didn’t leave a hope to rehabilitation his father and constantly wrote letters to the government about the innocence of Shakarim. Akhat in his aspiration to justify his father was not alone, he was supported by Kazakh intelligentsia and finally he received good news that “Shakarim Kudaiberdiyev is acquitted”, signed on October 29, 1958 by prosecutor of State Security Directorate of USSR.

In 1961 Akhat was allowed to dig out remains of his father lying in empty well almost 30 years. He reburied him near the cemetery of his great teacher Abai.

Works of Akhat Kudaiberdiyev dedicated to the popularization of Abai and Shakarim’s heritage were translated into Arabic by Cyrillic and contain whole layer of Kazakh literary heritage.

On June 26, 1984 Akhat turned over the priceless heritage of Shakarim to main fund of Abai museum in Semipalatinsk: 36 documents, 51 manuscripts (prose, memories and stories).

Akhat Shakarimuly Kudaiberdiyev made a significant contribution to the study of Abai and Shakarim’s works. Doctor of Medical Sciences, member of writer’s Union of Kazakhstan M.T. Aliakparov published books “Akhat” (1997), “Akyn amanaty” (2000), which revealed Akhat’s activity. Composer and journalist A.A. Akhmetzhanov have written about musical works of Akhat in regional newspaper “Semey tany” and republican magazine “Abai”.

Akhat Shakarimuly was rewarded Order of the Red Banner of Labor, the Badge of Honor and medals.

Akhat Shakarimuly died in 1984 and was buried in Zhidebai tract next to his father.

Akhat Shakarimuly had a son and a daughter by name Rukh from the first wife Sagila. They died in time of famine in Semipalatinsk in the house of Shaken’s daughter Raikhan. In 1931 he was sentenced to five years in prison, after that he couldn’t go out of town and settled in Almaty, where he got married to his second wife Khadisha (Kaden). Descendant from Khadisha is a son Fzuli (1942-1983), descendant of Fzuli is Daulet (1982). He lives in Almaty.

Ziyat Shakarimuly (1908-1937)

Ziyat Shakarimuly is a poet, playwright. From an early age he was clever and well-educated young man. In 1934 he has finished short term pedagogical courses in Sarysumbe city of the East Turkestan; also he has worked in education department in Altai region. Ziyat grew up as well as clever and wise as his brother Akhat.

Shakarim tried to save at least someone of his children. On October 1 in 1931 one day before his death poet sent his younger son Ziyat with his family to China. The last word was “goodbye”, the last present was favorite horse, and the last memory about father was his face under the grey sky, shedding tears by light drizzle. Later, already being away from the Motherland, Ziyat will wrote the only extant poem “Silbe”, describing in it his last day in native land. Alas but father’s efforts didn’t save Ziyat. Despite the borders agents of special services overtook him: first was arrest in 1931, and in 1935 as the official version says, he is missing.

Ziyat was accepted among Chinese Kazakhs, he was helped his compatriots in China, which knew Shakarim. Ziyat propagandized the heritage of his father and wrote poems. For the first time he wrote a play “Ayubai, Ukirdai” and put it in Sarysumbe. The play exposes rudeness and violence of ignorant rich men. Earlier he put spectacle “Old man and child’s aitys”, which is directed to introducing young people to science and education.

In 1935 he became a head of entertaining department of Kazakh-Kyrgyz educational organization in Urumqi, the center of modern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, a head of the literary department of the Kazakh edition of the newspaper “Xinjiang”. Together with Mukash Zhakeuly he translated anthem into Kazakh, dedicated to May revolution and sent out for youth.

Also he worked as a stage director and put plays such as “Karakoz”, “Shuga”, “Kalkaman and Mamyr”, “Zhalbyr”. He promoted widely Abai and Shakarim’s works. He paid more attention to learning songs of Abai and Shakarim by pupils.

The life of Ziyat turned up not easy, being already in China he faced with difficulties and heard about father’s death. All his sorrow he made in poems, he has written epic “Silbe” about his father in Chuguchak.

In 1937 Ziyat with other representatives of Kazakh intelligentsia that time was arrested by the government Qing Shisai, which colluded with Stalin in Xinjiang and he never came back. According to some sources he was shot in Urumqi in 1937, and according to another sources he was buried alive in 1940 by the lake Sayapyl to the East of Urumqi.

The first wife of Ziyat Kulzhiken gave birth a son (probably, Myrzakazy). Ziyat hastily moved to China got married for the second time. In 1936 Ziyat got married to the teacher Seitkazy’s daughter Munira, from whom he had a son. His name is Mereke. Descendants from Mereke are Nurlan (1966), Gaukhar, Meruert, Saule lives in Almaty.


Gulnar (Gullar) Shakarimkyzy (1917-1970) 

Great sorrow of Shakarim began after death of Gafur. Shakarim in his sorrow writes to his daughter Gullar mourning words, which is necessary to read keeping mourning, and Gullar and Gafur’s daughter took turns to say out it loud.

The daughter of Shakarim Gullar also has written mourning words in memory of his innocently shot father. Currently 46 strophes have kept.

Abzal Karsartov not only shot Shakarim who did creative work in the steppe, but became organizer of a camp in steppes Chingistau. There exhausted and hungry people brought, among them were also Shakarim’s children: son Kabysh, daughter Gullar and daughter of Abai, who were tortured day and night. Unable to withstand such a life Gullar drank a poison thus she decided commit suicide. Fortunately daughter of Abai noticed it, sneaked in shepherd’s house. She recruit milk there, gave to drink Gullar, and thus brought back to life her. After this incident Gullar hardly was released from prison and secretly delivered to Almaty.

The son of Gullar Fatikh remembering his mother writes: “My mother had a strong character. She was a very courageous, straightforward person in her youth who did not deviate from her principles. All her life she didn’t love when she was praised”.

Gullar Shakarimovna lived a simple life. The repressive machine of the Soviet Union drowned out her talent and left a certain imprint on her fate. However Gullar through all her life carried respect to the great ideal of her father. In one of her poems she wrote that her father lived for people and he handed over thoughts about correct life by his creativity.

Gullar lived in state farm named Kalinin of Almaty region and died in 1970. Her husband died in The Great Patriotic War. The son of Gullar Fatikh is businessman now, his daughters Gulmira and Roza are married, nieces and nephews live in Almaty.

Bayazit Gabdulgafuruly (1908-1931) 

Bayazit is a grandson of Shakarim, a son of Gabdulgafur.

Hard fate of country in 1928-1929 touched all relatives Shakarim. Despite the social status, riches or poorest, they all were chased, arrested and prisoned. Shakarim’s descendants suffered and were exaggerated. Only sister of Bayazit Kamila Gafurkyzy in memoirs “Zharaly zhurek zhazylmai” wrote: “My only brother Bayazit was released from prison in 1931 and on the return trip to the village he get caught up in difficult events in steppes of Chingistau”. He knew about death of grandfather, father and many relatives, devastation and hunger, which he fought, after 5-6 days drove him to suicide”. He is buried near my grandmother Mauen. There is a stone at the head of the grave.


Mereke Ziyatuly (1938-2016)

Mereke Ziyatuly is a grandson of Shakarim. When descendants of Shakarim were persecuted, Ziyat was compelled to move to China by father’s request. He was arrested together with jet set of the country in 1937 during the mass persecution of Xinjiang intelligentsia.

Mereke was a son of Ziyat. He was born on April 8, 1938 in China. His mother, Nurtayeva Munira Seitkazykyzy learnt Russian language in Urumqi, she speak fluently on Chinese and Uigur languages, worked as a teacher in Sarysumbe in Altai. With the help of mother Mereke for the first time learnt to read and to write. After the death of Munira Seitkazykyzy from typhoid fever in 1946, Mereke was in charge of Berdesh the son of Azimbai Takezhan the relative, which came from China with his father. He moved to Zaisan on May 10, 1955. On August 1959 his brother Akhat Shakarimuly seeking relatives, brought Mereke in Talgar.

Mereke Ziyatuly served in Krasnoyarsk region three years. Before retirement he worked in agriculture in Almaty region. He recited verses of Shakarim as his grandfather. Mereke lived in Talgar of Almaty region. Later he often visited native land at the foot of Chingistau mountain. He got married to Klara Mukankyzy, his children from this marriage – Nurlan, Gaukhar, Meruert and Saule.

On September 19, 2016 Mereke Ziyatuly died at the age of 78 in Besagash village of Almaty region. 


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