Аkbaev Zhakyp (1876-1934)


Zhakyp Akbayev is a public figure, a representative of the most advanced part of the Kazakh intelligentsia, a member of the Alash Orda government, by education he is a lawyer.

Zhakyp Akbayev was born on October 25, 1876 in the Tonirektas village of Berikkarinsk parish Karkaralinsk district of Semipalatinsk region in the family of a well-to-do peasant. In 1886 he graduated from the Karkaralinsk city Kazakh boarding school; he studied at the Omsk and Tomsk Grammar Schools. Then he entered the law faculty of St. Petersburg University, which he graduated with a diploma of the 1st degree.

In St. Petersburg, Zhakyp closely resembles people of progressive views. At meetings with them political issues are raised concerning changing the structure of the state on a constitutional basis, on the need to rebuff the injustice of the authorities.

In July 1905 in Omsk a meeting of the leaders of the tsarist administration took place, at which the governor-general of the Steppe region Sukhotin raised the issue of prohibiting representatives of the Kazakh people from participating in the elections to the State Duma. In this connection, with the assistance of Alikhan Bukeikhanov, on July 22, 1905, a telegram was sent to Nicholas II signed by 42 representatives of the Kazakh intelligentsia of the Karkaralinsk County, condemning the policy of the tsarist official. Zhakyp Akbayev was directly involved in the preparation of this document.

Zhakyp Akbayev actively participates in the demonstrations that took place on the streets of Omsk, in connection with the announcement of the tsarist manifesto of October 17, Akbayev speaks at them. Subsequently, he was charged, and he was dismissed from the justice authorities for political views.

After returning to Karkaraly county Zhakyp Akbayev completely devotes himself to social and political activities. Soon he became known as the organizer of the Karkaralinsk meeting, which was held on November 15, 1905. Together with A. Bukeikhanov, A. Baitursynov he participated in the writing of the Karkaralin petition, which expressed protest against the colonial yoke of the Kazakh people.

On January 11, 1906, Akbayev was arrested for “state crimes and treason” and was sent to Semipalatinsk prison. Later he was sent into exile in the Kapal district of the Semirechensk region. But even there Zhakyp Akbayev continues to criticize the colonial policy of tsarism and advocates for the oppressed people.

In 1910, the Ministry of the Interior issued a decree prohibiting Akbayev from living within Semipalatinsk and Turgay oblasts. He settles in Karaganda. He conducts agitation-mass work among miners. He was arrested and sent to Semipalatinsk. Zh. Akbayev met the February revolution in Karkaralinsk. The persecution of Akbayev did not cease even after the February Revolution. In this regard, the deputy chairman of the Kazakh Committee of the Karkaraly County the famous poet Narmanbet, together with Bukeikhanov send a letter to the higher authorities in support of Akbayev, and the committee adopts a corresponding resolution. The result was positive.

In 1912-15 he was engaged in advocacy. In 1915-1916, he was again arrested for resisting the tsarist authorities. After his release from prison in early 1917, he actively participates in the Alash movement. In July 1917 he was elected as a delegate of the All-Kazakh Congress, participated in the creation of the draft program of the Alash Party. At the 2nd All-Kazakh Congress, which took place from December 5 to December 13, 1917, he was elected as a member of the Alash Orda government. From October 1917, Zh. Akbayev headed the Karkaraly Land CountyCommittee.

Kolchak’s military court on July 7, 1919 sentenced Akbayev to be shot as an enemy of the military-Cossack dictatorship of Kolchak and the ataman.

After the rescue, in 1919-1927 he took an active part in the organization of judicial institutions in the Semipalatinsk region, heading the legal department of the Semipalatinsk Provincial Revolutionary Committee. At the beginning of the 20th century, Zhakyp Akbayev became one of the most influential spiritual leaders of the Kazakh intelligentsia.

At the end of 1929, Akbayev was subjected to illegal repression and was deported to Voronezh. And only in 1934 for health reasons he was released early, returned to Alma-Ata and died that same year at the age of 60. He was rehabilitated by decision of the Supreme Court of the Kazakh SSR on February 28, 1958.