Saduakasov Smagul (1900-1933)


Saduakasov Smagul is a prominent statesman, writer, publicist, literary critic, and economist. He was born in 1900 in the Zharkyn village Esil district of the North-Kazakhstan region. He graduated from the Russian-Kazakh School in 1915, the Moscow Institute of Transport Engineers in 1931. He studied in 1916-1918 in Omsk Agricultural College and Agricultural Institute. He began his career as a teacher in 1915 in the village. In 1917-1918 he was an active member of the organization of Kazakh youth “Birlik” (“Unity”) in Omsk, the head of its right wing, and also the secretary of the board of the organization “Zhas Azamat” (“The young citizen”). In 1918-1920 was an employee of the Kazakh department at zemstvo management in Akmola region, teacher of teaching courses. In 1920, he was a member of the Kazakh-Tatar section of the Siberian Bureau of the Russian Communist Youth Union (RCYU), a member of the Central Committee of the Youth Union of the East, secretary of the Kazakh Regional Committee of the RCYU. He was the editor of the newspaper Kedey Sozi (“The poor word”) in Omsk, a member of the editorial board of the newspapers “Ushkyn” (“Spark”), “Yenbek Tuy”(“Labor flag”) in the city of Orenburg. Being in the civil service, he defended the idea of ​​statehood and territorial integrity of Kazakhstan. In 1921 he led the transition of the Semipalatinsk region from subordination of Siberian revolutionary committee to the KASSR. Due to the dissolution of the Semipalatinsk Provincial Committee and the Gubernia Committee of the CPSU (b) and due to the absence of Kazakh representatives in them he received a party penalty. Despite this, he in 1922, for the same reason, dissolved the Kostanay Provincial Executive Committee and Torgay County Executive Committee. In March 1922 S.Saduakasov and M.Auezov presented to the leadership of the republic the project of political and social work among the Kazakhs. In this document, ways of eliminating national inequality were indicated. S.Saduakasov opposed the genocide of the Kazakh people, forced collectivization, the transformation of Kazakhstan into a raw material appendage of Russia, for which he was persecuted. S. Saduakasov’s supporters were a strong opposition to Moscow’s policy in Kazakhstan. Its leader S.Sauakasov was recognized as the leader of legal forces, the inspirer of nationalists and Alash Orda figure in the ranks of the Communist Party. The 3rd Plenum of the KazKrai Committee of the CPSU (b) issued a ruling condemning S.Saduakasov’s, S.Kozhanov’s, J.Mynbayev’s opposition groups. Participants of the opposition were removed from leading positions. Expelled from Kazakhstan, S. Saduakasov in 1927-1928 was the rector of the Pedagogical Institute in Tashkent. In 1931-1933 he worked as an engineer on the construction of the Donbass-Center railway. He died in Moscow after a serious illness caused by an accident at work.

S.Saduakasov contributed to the formation of a critical genre, participated in literary discussions. S.Saduakasov is one of the founders of the Kazakh Theater, the author of the first works on national theater studies (“On the National Theater”).