Aidarkhan Turlybayev


According to the documents, Turlybayev was married for a second time by this period. His wife Sagida Mukhamed-Rakhimova Karabalina was born in 1888 in the city of Petropavlovsk. He had four children from this marriage. An expert in foreign languages himself, he tried to give a high-quality education to his children. In order for his children to know foreign languages, in 1914 he invited Maria Henrikhovna Gron, a German teacher, as a home teacher. According to the memoirs of his grandson Aldan Berdenov: “My mother, her younger sister and their brothers knew German perfectly (my mother knew a little French).”

By 1915, Aidarkhan Turlybayev, continuing his legal career, “by the resolution of the Council of Sworn Attorneys of the Omsk Judicial Chamber District dated November 30 of this year, with the permission of the Minister of Justice, the former justice of the Peace, court counselor, A. Turlybayev, of the Mohammedan faith, was accepted into the number of Sworn Attorneys of the district of the named Judicial Chamber.” According to the testimony of his contemporaries (M. Dulatov-author), in the circle of the then intelligentsia he was called the “Kazakh Plevako”. The Kazakh national newspaper wrote about the successful activities of Aidarkhan Turlybayev in 1917:

“Aidarkhan Turlybayev is a sworn attorney, knows law thoroughly, and is a business man… Aidarkhan was worthy to become a deputy from the Akmola region at the I and II State Duma.”

Along with his advocacy, Turlybayev is actively involved in the socio-political life of the region. Here is what the famous Kazakh professor K. Abuov notes on this occasion: “having returned in 1902, Aidarkhan cooperates with representatives of the local intelligentsia on the problems of the future fate of the nation.”

While living in St. Petersburg, A. Turlybayev joined public life. He begins to actively contact representatives of the Kazakh community. He was enlisted in the staff of the Kyrgyz Steppe Newspaper as a correspondent. Besides Turlybayev, other well-known Kazakh public figures collaborated with this newspaper. The editorial staff of this newspaper represented the organizational core of the Kazakh social movement of progressives, whose tasks were to evolve towards the democratization of Kazakh society.

Turlybayev actively joined political life after the February events of 1917, because he associated with them, like the entire Kazakh intelligentsia, hopes for major political and economic changes. On March 2, 1917, a joint meeting of the City Duma and representatives of public organizations was held in the administrative center of the Steppe General Government of Omsk, at which the issue of organizing a new government body was considered. Here it was decided to form the Omsk Coalition Committee. 15 people were elected to it. A. Turlybayev became the head of the Kazakh department in the established committee. Almost simultaneously, the Omsk regional Kazakh Committee of 10 people was created by delegation. At the meetings of the Omsk Coalition Committee on April 3 and 7, questions were specifically heard about relations with the regional Kazakh committee and the procedure for organizing power in Kazakh villages. On April 7, the petition of the head of the Kazakh department of the committee, A. Turlybayev, was discussed to issue certificates to Kazakh commissars sent to create local aul and volost organizations of the Kazakh population and to convene a congress of representatives of the Kazakh population on April 23. All Kazakh commissars were approved on the recommendation of A. Turlybayev and received shoulder badges and certificates of volost commissars.

Turlybayev took an active part in the organization and holding of the Kazakh congress of the Akmola region, which was held from April 24 to May 7, 1917 in Omsk. 114 delegates arrived to participate in the congress, two people from each parish. The congress was attended by the commander of the Omsk Military District, Major General G.V. Grigoriyev, Assistant Commander S.M. Nemchinov, Chairman of the coalition committee P.A. Filashev, Commissioner of the Steppe Region I.P. Zakonov, Chairman of the Council of Peasant Deputies S.I. Yurkevich, two Muslim chairmen. Aidarkhan Turlybayev, a member of the Coalition Committee, was elected Chairman of the congress. There were 4 sections – religious, women’s, financial and public education sections. The Congress adopted a resolution: to introduce universal education from the age of 8-12 in the native language in aul schools, to train teachers, to find 50 scholarships for Muslim and 5 scholarships for Russian secondary schools, to introduce women’s equality. To achieve their goals, the delegates proposed the creation of a special Akmola regional executive Kazakh committee chaired by Aidarkhan Turlybayev. A. Seitov, S. Zhanaidarov were elected deputies, and M. Zhumabayev was elected a member. The organizers of the congress aimed to support the Alash party and the Omsk Coalition Committee, representing the new government after the February Revolution.

In 1917, A. Turlybayev actively participated in the organization and holding of the First All-Kazakh Congress, where the Alash party was created (July 21-28, 1917). Representatives of all regions gathered in Orenburg. The congress puts forward a demand for territorial and national autonomy within the framework of the Russian Democratic Federation. At the first congress, Turlybayev was elected a delegate from the Akmola region to participate in the All–Russian Kurultai and the All-Russian Muslim Congress of Shura – and  Islami. He also took part in the creation of the Akmola regional committee of the Alash party.

The second congress of Kazakhs of the Akmola region, scheduled for September 1917, was opened late. From September 23 to 27, a congress of representatives of Kyrgyz county performers of the Akmola region took place in Omsk (in the premises of the regional economic committee). The congress was chaired by A. Turlybayev and A. Seitov. By the way, the delegates from the field noted an increase in crime among the Kyrgyz, which was not the case before. Robberies, theft and “barymta” have become more frequent. To combat crime, the congress unanimously decided to elect a volost people’s court. The Congress called for the immediate introduction of zemstvo among the Kirghiz on a general basis wherever possible; where, thanks to mixed land ownership, it is impossible to conduct zemstvo on a general basis, the Congress decided to organize special zemstvo units: district zemstvos. The Congress decided to support with all its authority the distribution of bonds of the “Freedom Loan” among the Kyrgyz people. The Congress elected E. Itpayev as a delegate to the Siberian regional Congress in Tomsk.

Representatives of Alash, closely connected with Siberian public figures in 1917, maintained contacts with the leadership of the Siberian regional movement. They took part in the work of the regional first Siberian Congress convened on October 8, 1917 in the city of Tomsk. Turlybayev is elected to the Siberian Regional Committee from the Akmola region. The Congress discussed the issues of forms of self-government, national, land, the creation of a Siberian-wide economic council and a permanent regional body. Also at the congress, A. Bukeikhan and A. Ermekov were elected to the presidium from the Semipalatinsk region. It must be said that since pre-revolutionary times and throughout 1917-1918, the Kazakh nationals maintained a close relationship with the Siberian oblasts, due to both objective reasons and their political pragmatism.

On October 31, 1917, the constituent assembly of Alash was held in Omsk with the participation of A. Bukeikhan, and on December 18, 1917, the Kazakh newspaper published the composition of the Omsk Committee: A. Seitov, M. Zhumabaev, M. Samatov, A. Turlybayev (chairman), B. Serkebayev, E. Mukushev, E. Itpayev, D. Adilov, K. Kemengerov, M. Seitov, J. Tleulin, O. Akhmetov, H. Kozhamberlin, K. Kakenov. Judging by the data of the researcher of the movement D.Amanzholova, five county committees of the party were created in the Akmola region, extensive explanatory work was carried out in connection with the elections to the constituent assembly.

Turlybayev also became a co-organizer of the second All-Kazakh Congress, held from December 5 to December 13, 1917, where the Alash Autonomy was formed. But he did not manage to participate there. According to archival documents, he participated on December 6 in the work of the Extraordinary Siberian Congress, held in Tomsk. Nevertheless, Turlybayev was elected a member of the All-Kyrgyz People’s Council of Alash Horde. Here his candidacy was nominated for the post of chairman of Alash Horde, Alikhan Bukeikhan and Bakhytkery Kulmanov were also nominated for voting.

Judging by some data that require some clarification, 40 deputies voted for Alikhan Bukeikhan, 18 against, 19 for Bakhytkerey Kulmanov, 39 against, 20 for Aidarkhan, 38 against. Thus, the delegates showed commitment to democratic values. And in terms of authority in Kazakh society, Aidarkhan Turlybayev was second only to Genghisid A.Bukeikhanuly.

At the same time, he actively participated in the establishment of the Alash people’s militia (together with H. Gabbasov, M. Tynyshbaev, B. Mametov).

On June 28, 1918, by order of the West Siberian Commissariat of the Siberian government, he was appointed to the Akmola Regional Commissariat. During this meeting, a final decision was made on the location of the West Siberian Committee in Omsk and the issue of the Omsk (Akmola) regional commissariat was discussed for the first time. The West Siberian Commissariat decided to form the Omsk (Akmola) regional commissariat consisting of three persons. On June 19, 1918, the West Siberian Commissariat adopted a journal resolution on the establishment of the Akmola regional Commissariat under the leadership of Chairman P.I. Kortusova, it included A.G. Kordo and A.T. Turlybayev. But in such a composition, the Akmola Commissariat did not last long. There were two issues on which Kortusov had an opinion that did not coincide with the views of the leadership of higher authorities, especially with the Minister of Internal Affairs of the Provisional Siberian Government, V.M. Krutovsky. On July 25, 1918, A. Turlybayev wrote a statement about his move from Omsk to Semipalatinsk, and left the commissariat. But contrary to his statement, he does not leave for Semipalatinsk, but continues to serve as a sworn attorney in Omsk. In the summer of 1918, he joined the Omsk branch of the Union of the Renaissance of Russia, and in September of the same year he was elected a vowel of the Omsk City Duma. This fact from his life also testifies to his highest authority among Siberians.

On February 11, 1919, under the chairmanship of the Deputy Interior Minister of the Government of Kolchak P. Koropachinsky, a preliminary interdepartmental meeting “on the administrative and economic structure of the Kazakh-Kyrgyz people” was held in Omsk. The meeting was attended by representatives of the Ministries of Internal and Foreign Affairs, Justice, Finance, as well as Chairman of Alash Horde A. Bukeikhan and its members U.Tanashev and A.Turlybayev.

After the end of the Civil War in Kazakhstan in 1920, the Central Executive Committee and the Council of People’s Commissars of the RSFSR adopted a decree “On the formation of the Kyrgyz Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic”. At that time, a representative office of the Cuirassiers was established on the territory of the Omsk region, which existed until 1923, and was headed by its Plenipotentiary Representative A. Turlybayev.

The Kazakh Soviet leadership fulfilled the instruction of the Kyrgyz Bureau

of the RCP(The Russian Communist Party) to send a representative delegation to Omsk, which should achieve the transfer of the territory of the former Akmola and Semipalatinsk regions from Siberian Revolutionary Committee to the KASSR. It was headed by Chairman of the Central Electoral Commission of Kyrgyzstan S. Mendeshev. Representatives of the People’s commissariats and other KASSR services who came with Mendeshev from Orenburg were often present at the meetings of the commission.

The staff of the Kyrgyz Representative Office at the Siberian Revolutionary Committee A. Turlybayev, T. Telzhanov, A. Aitiyev, E. Itbayev, as well as employees of the Siberian Revolutionary Committee A.Shisha, I. Maisky acted as specialists, handed over materials prepared in advance.

In November 1921, during the delimitation of Omsk and Petropavlovsk counties, serious disagreements occurred over the ownership of the Isilkul station between Siberian Revolutionary Committee and the administration of Petropavlovsk county. Then A. Turlybayev demanded the execution of the decree of the administrative commission of the Central Executive Committee, and only in May 1922 the stud farm near the Isilkul station was transferred to the Petropavlovsk district.

The representative office also allocated funds for the maintenance of students while studying in Omsk. In 1922, Turlybayev wrote to the Central Executive Committee of Kyrgyz Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic about allocating 500 pounds of flour and 200 pounds of meat to students. In 1921, famine began in the territory of present-day Kazakhstan and the Omsk representative office of the Kyrgyz Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic appealed to the Kazakhs of the Omsk district of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic with a request to provide food assistance. Such help was soon proven.

Until the early 30s of the last century, A. Turlybayev worked as a legal adviser at the regional consumer union: until 1931 in the city of Omsk, and then at the grain farm Vysotenka until October 1934. From October 1934 to April 1935, he held the position of legal adviser at the Management of Kazzheleznodstroy in the city of Akmola.

On July 4, 1937, A. Turlybayev was arrested by the People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs at the age of 60. The next day, he was charged: “being an active Alash person during the Kolchak reaction in Siberia, he betrayed persons sympathetic to the Soviet government to the White Guards. He mobilized horsemen to fight the Soviet government. After the defeat of the White Guard in Siberia, he continued counter-nationalist activities aimed at overthrowing Soviet power and creating a pan-Turkic state. Together with other people, he prepared cadres for the uprising during the period of military complications.”

Turlybayev pleaded not guilty to any of the charges. And on November 17, 1937, the organs of the Department of State Security People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs announced the verdict to “shoot”. On November 23, A. Turlybayev was shot. Only on August 13, 1957, by the military tribunal of the Siberian Military District, the name of A. Turlybayev was fully rehabilitated for lack of evidence of a crime.

The fate of his children turned out differently.

Sofia Aidarkhanovna Turlybayeva (Berdenova) (1909-1985) was born on October 15, 1909 in Petropavlovsk, North Kazakhstan region. In 1928, she graduated from a nine-year-old school in Omsk with a pedagogical bias and worked professionally in a 4-year-old elementary school in Azov village, Omsk region, since September 1929 at primary school No. 3. in Petropavlovsk. In 1930, she married Tayzhan Berdenov and due to his transfer from Petropavlovsk, where he worked as a deputy of the head of City Department of Public Education, in Kokchetav for the position of editor of the regional newspaper “Kolkhoz Zholy”, in 1934, the Kazakh Regional Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) sent him to work in the city of Alma-Ata is the editor-in-chief of Kazakh publishing house. In December 1937, T. Berdenov was arrested, and in 1938, Sofia was arrested in February and served 8 years in Algeria. She died in 1985 in Almaty.

Her husband is Berdenov Taizhan, born in 1906, a native of North Kazakhstan region. He is Kazakh, he worked in the newspaper editorial office, deputy head. Department of Public Education of Petropavlovsk, the last position is the deputy director of Kazakh state Publishing House. He lived in Alma-Ata. In December 1937, he was dismissed from the editorial office. Attention is drawn to the fact that the orders were issued as if “by the way, in the order of things”: first, a “dressing down” of current affairs was arranged, and then the arrests of editors were reported. The editor-in-chief Berdenov should be dismissed from 20.12 this year as arrested by the People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs. Order No. 106 on Kazakh State Publishing House dated 12/23/1937

The post was condemned on 03/02/1938. Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR to capital punishment. He was shot. Rehabilitated on 04/19/1989 by the Prosecutor’s office of the Alma-Ata region.

Rizakhan Aidarkhanovich Turlybayev (1912-1940), according to the memoirs of close relatives, died on the train while traveling to work on a geological expedition.

Muratkhan Aidarkhanovich Turlybayev (1914-1970) was expelled from the Frunze Leningrad Naval School after his arrest as the son of an enemy of the people. M. Turlybayev was a highly erudite man, generously gifted by nature, spoke foreign languages, especially German, and played several musical instruments. He graduated from a short-term accounting course in Omsk and went north near the village of Leushi, near Lake Tuman. When the war began, despite the existing reservation in the forestry enterprise, he began to write to various authorities with a request to send him to the front. In 1942, he went to the front, where he fought on the Terek, “Malaya Zemlya” and ended the war in Kenisberg. He amazed others with his German pronunciation. He served in intelligence, having numerous military awards. After the war, Murat Aidarkhanovich worked at the Sivzavod as the head of the financial department, since 1950 – the chief accountant of the General Agreement on Trade in Services. And in 1955-1956, he was the chief accountant of the Krasny Dvigatel plant. Since 1959 – Senior Controller-auditor of the Ministry of Finance in Almaty, since 1960 – Chief Accountant of KazSU named after Kirov.

Leila Aidarkhanovna Turlybayeva (1923-2005) graduated from the Central Correspondence Courses of Foreign Languages in Moscow. She worked as a German language teacher. She graduated from the Almaty Institute of Foreign Languages, taught German at the Institute of National Economy, and then at KazSU.

Aidarkhan’s grandchildren also grew up worthy.

In general, Aidarkhan Turlybayev lived a bright and eventful life, faithfully serving his people. His name occupies a firm place in the gallery of the best names of worthy sons of a Great country, along with the founders of the Alash movement and its leaders A. Bukeikhan, A. Baitursynuly, M. Dulatuly, Zh. Aimautuly and others. Until recently, his name has been little researched. The current generation of citizens of Kazakhstan should pay close attention to the need for careful study of such outstanding personalities as him. It is on such as Aidarkhan that the current generation of young citizens of independent Kazakhstan should be equated. Honest ones. Decent ones: qualified, devoted to the idea of serving the nation, who wished prosperity to their country to the core, who sincerely believe in the bright future of the Great Kazakh Republic.