Mukhtar Auezov

Mukhtar Auezov’s first wife – Raikhan Kakenkyzy (1902-1976) 

Mukhtar Omarkhanovich had 3 official marriages and one civil marriage. According to customs, the first bride of Auezov, 15-year-old Raikhan Kakenkyzy, was chosen by his relatives. In the summer of 1917, a wedding took place. The young couple lived together for 3 years, became parents of  their daughter Mugamila and son Chokan. Mugamila was born in 1918, her father took care of her well-being all her life. According to the stories of Mugamili herself, a shildehana was arranged in the village, which was attended by Sultanmakhmut Toraighyrov, seminarians Kanysh Satpayev and Alkey Margulan. A year later, a son Chokan was born, who passed away early. In 1920, when Rayhan turned 18, her marriage with Mukhtar broke up. Their daughter from her first marriage Mughamila Mukhtarkyzy recalls about her mother: “My mother Rayhan was the only daughter among six brothers. Her father was born from the subgenus of Torgai of the Tobykty family. She was engaged to the son of a volost from a neighboring village. But the wedding was not destined to happen. The son of the poet Abai Turagul turned to his friend with a request to give his daughter to Mukhtar. Unable to refuse his best friend, Kaken terminates the agreement with the volost. And Mukhtar marries Rayhan. …In 1917, the Kazakh theater for the first time raised its curtain with the play “Enlik – Kebek”, written by a young twenty-year-old writer. It was at this time that my twenty-year-old father married my mother Rayhan. But the marriage soon broke up, and by the decision of the people’s court, the son was left to the father, the daughter to the mother. But the father, saying that he would take a walk, put his daughter on a horse in front of him and rode away from the village. The search yielded nothing. Thus, me and little Shokan, who later passed away, we both stayed with my father.”


Daughter of Mukhtar Auezov and Raikhan Kakenovna – Mugamil Mukhtarovna Auezov (1918-2009)

Mugamilya was the eldest daughter of the great writer from his first marriage. She has not lived a simple life, but she has never forgotten whose daughter she is. After graduating from the pedagogical college, Mugamila marries Bokebai, the nephew of Akhmetbek Shikibayev. Mugamila and Bokebay live and work in different regions of Kazakhstan on duty. They have children – sons Nariman, Bakhtiar and daughter Gulzhakhan.

Many years later, in 1943, Mugamila finds her own mother Rayhan. From now on, the first wife of the great writer lives with her daughter, son-in-law and grandchildren. Mugamila was especially proud of being by her father’s side during the most difficult time for him, when he was first arrested, and when no one dared to communicate with him, fearing for their lives. During this difficult time, only she, a 12-year-old girl, carried transfers to prison on sleds and did his laundry until one day he was released. At the same time, she deserves to have her name inscribed in golden letters in the history of Kazakh literature. Now, through the efforts of her children, the book “The Word about the Father” by Mugamila Auezova has been published.  Mugamila died on July 13, 2009 at the 91st year of her life.



The second wife of Mukhtar Auezov – Kamilya Magauiyakyzy (1900-1932)

In 1920, after his divorce from his first wife, Mukhtar took his daughter to himself and married Kunanbayev’s granddaughter Kamila Magauiyakyzy, but this marriage was also quickly broken up. M. Auezov had two daughters from his second wife Kamilya. Mugamila Auezova, Rayhan’s daughter recalls: “Kamilya probably loved Mukhtar very much, because she gave me all her maternal love without a trace. She became my mother instead of my own mother Rayhan. For a long time I thought that Kamilya was my own mother. Kamilya’s two daughters died in infancy. Having lost her children, Kamilya suffered from the fact that she could not feed them with her milk. She suffered a lot. And me being just a child, I comforted her as much as I could and repeated: “Don’t cry mom, don’t cry.”

Mukhtar Auezov’s third wife – Valentina Nikolaevna Kuzmina

According to some sources, Valentina Nikolaevna’s grandfather was related to Lomonosov (the Kuzmins came from the Arkhangelsk province). In October 1923, Mukhtar Auezov entered the philological department of Leningrad State University. Mukhtar Auezov and Valentina Nikolaevna Kuzmina, his future wife, met at the Faculty of Social Sciences, in the Slavic-Russian section of the Literary and Linguistic Department. In 1929, a daughter, Leila, was born, and 14 years later, a son, Ernar.

After graduating from Leningrad University in August 1928, the young family moved to Tashkent. Mukhtar Auezov continues his postgraduate studies at the Oriental Faculty of the Central Asian State University of Tashkent. And Valentina Nikolaevna works as a teacher of the Russian language at the school. He will live with Valentina until the end of his life, and then it will be Valentina Nikolaevna who will recreate the atmosphere of their home when creating the Auezov Museum. And their daughter Leila will become the director of this museum. One day Mukhtar Auezov wrote a letter that he gave to his wife Valentina and asked her to print it out only if something happened to him. She will open this message after her husband’s death. That’s what it said: “Valechka, dear! There will come a time when we will lose each other. I wouldn’t want to stay after your death. It would be right for the children, for our family, if you are alive, my pure, courageous, human, golden mother of my beloved children… This is the order I wanted to leave in case of an unexpected turn in fate. May this letter always be with you, my beloved! With love, your Mukhtar.”



Daughter of Mukhtar Auezov and Valentina Kuzmina – Leila Mukhtarovna Auezova (1929-1993)

Leyla Mukhtarovna Auezova is a Kazakh scientist, Doctor of Historical Sciences (1975), daughter of the famous Kazakh writer M. O. Auezov. Comes from the genus Hodja. Graduated from the Faculty of History of Moscow State University, postgraduate studies at the Institute of Oriental Studies of the USSR Academy of Sciences. In 1956-1962, he was an employee of the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan. Since 1963, she worked as the director of the Literary and Memorial Museum of M. Auezov, the Auezov House Museum. The main scientific works of the scientist are devoted to the history of Kazakhstan, the development of agriculture in Kazakhstan, the issues of the history of Kazakhstan in the works of M. Auezov. Under the leadership of L.M. Auezova, the museum staff published a large number of books on the study of M.O.Auezov’s creative heritage. She made a huge contribution to the research, collection and publication of numerous works by M.O.Auezov. For scientific works devoted to the historical foundations of the works of M. O. Auezov, Auezova was awarded the Chokan Valikhanov Prize (1979). She died on May 24, 1993, and was buried at the Kensai Cemetery in Almaty.  Her husband was an outstanding scientist, a bright star of Kazakh science Askar Minliakhmedovich Kunaev (1929-1999). He, already in the period of independence of Kazakhstan, was among the most authoritative scientists in the world. He was a specialist in the field of metallurgy of ferrous and non-ferrous metals and the integrated use of mineral raw materials. He was the brother of D. A. Kunaev, died on March 31, 1999 in Almaty. They had two sons, bearers of the Kunaev surname. Kunaev Eldar Askarovich – Consul of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the city of Brest of the Republic of Belarus, President of the D.A. Kunaev International Foundation. His son Mukhtar is named after the famous grandfather Mukhtar Auezov. Kunaev Diar Askarovich – director of the House-Museum of M.O.Auezov. His son Dinmukhamed is named after another famous grandfather Kunaev Dinmukhamed Akhmedovich.

Son of Mukhtar Auezov and Valentina Kuzmina – Ernar Mukhtarovich Auezov (1935-1995)

In 1930, Auezov was arrested on charges in connection with the organization of young writers “Alka”. He spent two and a half years in prison, his wife and daughter returned to Leningrad. Later, the family managed to reunite, and in 1943, a son, Ernar, was born, who became a biologist. It was in 1969 that Ernar Mukhtarovich introduced the world zoological science to the mysterious Alakol seagull.  This species is listed in the Red Book. It was called the “relict seagull”. Thanks to his long and hard work, he became a candidate of zoological sciences, an ornithologist. Until the end of his life, he held various positions in this field and did not give up science. As a child, Ernar was very modest and was modest in adulthood. Ernar had a broad forehead, attractive appearance: curly hair, thoughtful eyes, slightly dilated lips, a beautiful figure. Paternal and maternal genetics mixed Ernar with more European traits than with Asian ones.


The fourth civil wife of Mukhtar Auezov – Fatima Zeynullinovna Gabitova (1903-1968)

In his youth, Mukhtar became friends with the Kazakh poet Ilyas Dzhansugurov. Ilyas was repressed and shot in 1938. With the outbreak of the war between Germany and Russia, Auezov left for Kazakhstan. Having learned about the plight of the widow of the deceased friend of Ilyas Fatima Zeynullinovna Gabitova, he began to help her. Fatima worked as a teacher, wrote poems and articles. Rare meetings with Auezov strengthened her strength to raise five children from two husbands shot during the years of repression.

Fatima Zeynullinovna Gabitova is a well-known school teacher of the Kazakh language and literature. The wife and mother of three children of outstanding representatives of Kazakh culture: the famous teacher Bilyalsuleyev, the famous poet Ilyas Dzhansugurov and the world-famous writer Mukhtar Auezov. Fatima Gabitova’s whole life is connected with literary and educational activities. Over the years of her teaching career , she has educated thousands of students, actively participated in educational reforms. Her work during the Great Patriotic War, despite the stigma of “the wife of the enemy of the people”, was awarded a state award. Fatima’s creative legacy: poems, short stories, lyrical sketches, essays, literary translations, literary critical articles.

She was awarded the “Medal of Motherhood” of the first degree.  Left alone in the face of endless worries and trials, Fatima accepts the support and help of Mukhtar Auezov, a loyal friend of Bilal Suleev and Ilyas Dzhansugurov. Mukhtar Auezov, having learned about the plight of her family, offered her help. Mukhtar Auezov’s wife was living in Leningrad at that time, he himself was released from arrest (he was always under surveillance and suspicion), M. Auezov lived with his eldest daughter Mugamila. Mukhtar took a caring, fatherly part in raising the children of his dead friends Bilal and Ilyas, risking his own freedom. The long-term friendship of Mukhtar Auezov and Fatima Gabitova develops into a sincere feeling. In 1941, Fatima’s eldest son Janibek turns 18 and goes to war. During the war, the family fell out of favor again, and in 1942 Mukhtar Auezov sent Fatima Gabitova and her children to Merke (Zhambyl region), where his brother Razak lived. There, on January 1, 1943, Fatima’s seventh child, Murat Auezov, was born. For Fatima, Mukhtar Auezov bought a house in Alma-Ata, at 83 Mira Street (Issyk-Kul), in which Fatima Gabitova and her children lived for 10 years.  Mukhtar Auezov helped her, thanks to him, all Fatima’s children learned, graduated from schools and institutes. Fatima Gabitova edited books, collected oriental folklore, wrote articles, memoirs of her outstanding contemporaries, engaged in translations, worked on the archive of Ilyas Dzhansugurov, fighting for his rehabilitation and publication of his literary heritage.


The son of Mukhtar Auezov and Fatima Gabitova – Murat Auezov (1943)

Murat Auezov is a writer, philosopher, sinologist, head of the Mukhtar Omarkhanovich Auezov Foundation. He was born in the Dzhambul region, in the village of Merke.  He studied at the Institute of Oriental Languages at the Lomonosov Moscow State University (1965). Graduated from the postgraduate course of the Institute of World Literature of the USSR Academy of Sciences, (1966-1969); is a candidate of philological sciences, wrote a dissertation “Problems of national identity of modern Kazakh literature”, (1969). He held the positions of Editor-in-Chief of the Kazakhfilm Film Studio, Chairman of the Main Editorial Board for Literary Translation and Literary Relations at the Union of Writers of Kazakhstan (1988-1989); was Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the People’s Republic of China (12.1992-03.1995); President of the Soros-Kazakhstan Foundation (12.1999-07.2003); Director General of the National Libraries of the Republic of Kazakhstan (14.07.2003-08.2007); since 2007 he has been the President of the Mukhtar Auezov Foundation. Winner of the “Tarlan” award (2003), the “Altyn asyk” award, the special prize of the festival-contest “Altyn Adam-Man of the Year” (2005), the award in the nomination “Intelligentsia for Intelligentsia”, established by the Association “Golden Age” and the editorial board of the magazine “Tamyr” (04.06.2005), the Academy of Journalism of Kazakhstan “Altyn zhuldyz-2005” in the nomination “The best author’s program” (30.03.2005); Has government awards. Author of over 200 publications on the theory and practice of the artistic process. Author of monographs: “The connecting thread of Time” (Almaty, 1972), “Ippokrena. Walking to the Wells of Time” (Almaty, 1997), and one of the compilers of “Leave to Return” (Almaty, 2002).On the state TV channel “Kazakhstan” hosts the author’s program “The Connecting thread of Times”.

Wife: Auezova Tamara Kasymbekovna. Has a daughter, Zifa-Scarlet (1966), a son, Magzhan (1975)

List of used literature

  1. Anastasiev N. The tragedy of the triumphant. – Almaty.2001
  2. Auezov M.M. Murat, son of Fatima: interview with M.M. Auezov about childhood, mother, father.// Mirror.-2000.-10 Sep.
  3. Berkimbayev A. Unknown M. Auezov.// Country and the world. 2007.-22 June