Zhumakhan Kuderin

The first wife of Zhumakhan Kuderin – Bibisara Zhanbazarova

Zhumakhan Kuderin remembered: “When my wife Sarah, left me, she took away everything that could be taken away. I did not limit her – on the one hand, I was curious to observe her “greed”, and on the other, I wanted only one thing, so that everything would end sooner. ”


Zhumakhan Kuderin’s second wife – Tatyana Georgievna Kuderina-Nasonova (1902-1978)

Kuderina-Nasonova Tatyana Georgievna is the wife of the first Kazakh biologist, scientist-encyclopedist, lexicographer, poet, translator, teacher and public figure Zhumakhan Mausumbayevich Kuderin.
Tatyana Georgievna was born in the village of Rusanovo, Borisoglebsk district, Tambov province in 1902. She grew up in a peasant family. She was Russian, finished secondary education, teacher, writer, was engaged in teaching.
Tatyana Georgievna and Zhumakhan Mausumbaevich met in his exile, in Voronezh in 1934. Here Zhumakhan Kuderin worked as a chief agronomist in the Voronezh Union of Cooperators. He helped Tatyana Georgievna by everything he could helped. She lived in poverty at that time. Their friendship tuned to love, and they married.
Tatyana Georgievna Kuderina-Nasonova remembered: “Sometimes we had dinner at home. In the evenings I worked – I sewed or knitted. Then we told each other about our past. ”
They came together to Alma-Ata in 1935. Tatyana Georgievna was arrested on April 14, 1938 by the NKVD of Alma-Ata. On April 23, 1938 she was prosecuted under Articles 17-58-2, 58-7, 58-8, 58-11 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR and she was sentenced to 2 years of exile (deportation) outside Almaty and the Almaty region as an accomplice of enemies of the people, traitors to the Motherland, members of the anti-Soviet nationalist terrorist-insurgent and espionage-sabotage organization.
Kuderina-Nasonova Tatyana Georgievna was in exile in the Dzhambul region of the Kazakh SSR (1938-1940).
For nearly two decades, they were constantly starving. She was out of work.
After her husband’s arrest in Alma-Ata, she and her young children were exiled to Pakhta-Aral for two years. The apartment and their belongings were confiscated. She with the children were without help.
She was released by the Merkensky RONKVD, Dzhambul region from exile on July 21, 1940.
After returning to Almaty Kuderina-Nasonova Tatyana Georgievna worked at a school, at the Institute of Botany.
She was rehabilitated by the Military Prosecutor’s Office of Kazakhstan on October 3, 1995. Kuderina-Nasonova Tatyana Georgievna died in Moscow on May, 04, 1978. She was buried near the village of Mestia (Svaneti). She was buried in the same grave with her son Sarym, who died in the mountains.


Son of Zhumakhan Kuderin – Sarym (Syrym) Dzhumakhanovich Kuderin (1936-1963)

Sarym Dzhumakhanovich Kuderin is the first Kazakh professional mountaineer.
The second son of the Kuderins, Sarym (the first son of Ferdowsi died in childhood) was born in Alma-Ata on December 5, 1936. His birth name Srym (meaning of name is “ My secret” in Kazakh). The Russian version of the name: Sarym (“Redhead” in Kazakh).
Sarym Kuderin is a philologist by education, a teacher and journalist by profession, a poet. In 1958 he graduated from the philological faculty of the Kazakh State University. He taught Russian language and Russian literature at school. He worked in the editorial office of the newspaper “Druzhnye rebyata” (“Amicable children”)
After the arrest of the father in Alma-Ata, the mother with young children was exiled to Pakhta-Aral for two years. The family was constantly starving. His mother was out of work. His mother arranged for her son to live in Children’s home of Kaskelen. He was afraid of beating and he left children’s home and returned on foot to the mother.
Until the fifth grade, Sarym did not go to school in cold weather, his mother taught him at home, because there were no shoes. Later, he remembered that he wore the same shoes with his friend Alexei Maryashev.
The mountains were his greatest love. He first began to go to the mountains as a 5th grade student in 1947. Sarym took his mother’s clothesline and went with his friends to his “heights”. His friend was Viktor Pavlovich Egorov (1933-1967), Мaster of Sport. Egorov died after climbing the peak of Communism.
At the end of the seventh grade, he entered the pedagogical college in Turgen. Thanks to the rector, who remembered his father, Sarym entered the philological faculty of KazSU after the college.
Сарым – первый чемпион СССР по альпинизму из Казахстана (1962 г.). Золото он получил за восхождение на пик Революции в классе высотных восхождений.
Sarym is the first champion of USSR in mountaineering from Kazakhstan (1962). In the class of high-altitude ascents, he won gold medal for climbing the peak of the Revolution.
In 1957 Sarym stormed the Marble Wall (5A) under the leadership of Ural Usenov (Master of sport -MS, 1958), and he stormed the Western Wall of South Talgar (5B) under the leadership by Alexey Vododokhov (MS, 1960) in 1960.
Sarym Kuderin together with Ural Usenov, Sembai Musaev, Nikolai Avdeev and Boris Kelver were involved by V. M. Abalakov in the expedition (1956) to Victory Peak . Sarym reached an altitude of 6800 m. Other participants did not let him go higher.
In his backpack, Sarym always had two volumes of his favorite authors: Gumilyov and Paustovsky.
Sarym Kuderin – the first trainer, student, social activist (since 1955), trained the section of the university. In the space of three years, he could prepared a youth team capable of storming the most difficult peaks.
His students are well-known Kazakhstan masters of high-altitude mountaineering Vladimir Zapeka, Igor Kondrashov, Mansur Gizatulin, Rif Sagadeev, Tamara Postnikova who have visited many seven-thousandth picks
of the USSR. Three of his pupils Ervand Ilyinsky, Yuri Golodov and Valery Khrishchaty became outstanding mountaineers of the USSR – the conquerors of Mount Everest.
In spite of his past Sarym was such a positive, optimistic, one might say, his was called ideal personality. It was mystery for everyone who knew his. During the two years of his training work, nobody heard and suspected about his difficult childhood and all the misfortunes that befell their family. Also, no one suspected that he was seriously engaged in poetry.
Only after his death Sarym’s poems “New Poems” (publishing house “Zhasushi, 1967),”Summit” (publishing house “Zhalyn, 1977) were published. His poems were published in the magazines “Prostor” (Expanse), “ Rodniki” (“Springs”), “Poetry” and others.
On January 11, 1963, Sarym Kuderin was awarded the title – Master of Sports in Mountaineering.
Sarym Kuderin died together with Lev Myshlyaev’s team on July 14, 1963 at 11:20 am. He climbed along the route of Boris Garf (5B) to peak Chatyn Tay of Chatyn mountain, Caucasus.
Leo Myshlyaev’s group climbed very quickly along the route and went to the place of overnight stay at 10 o’clock in the morning. It was early to get up for the night, so we went further. The group from Kosmachev – Timokhin overcame the snow cornice and reached the Chatyn ridge. At that moment, the cornice crashed down and Myshlyaev, Kolosov, Melnikov, Kuderin, Baronov and Smirnov were threw off to the Chatyn plateau. Bozhukov and Korshunov remained on the rocks. A year later, in a personal letter to Timokhin Kosmachev wrote that he felt like a soldier after a hard battle, who survived and blamed himself for the death of his comrades. A few days later Timokhin and Glukhovtsev died on Ushba.
In 1963, he planned with Muscovites to go on a mountaineering expedition for the last time . Next year he planned with his team to climb Lenin Peak.
In 1964, his students as part of the team ”Kazakh Stomy Petrel” went to Lenin Peak.
Sarym was a man of generous soul, he was ready to sincerely share with everything that he had. Sarym always firmly and openly hated meanness, despised lies and double-mindedness. He wanted to see good simplicity, courage, a clear view of life, honesty and loyalty in people. He was an extremely reliable and kind comrade.
Sarym was buried in the mountains near the village of Mestia, in Svaneti. Near his grave lied his body of his mother Tatyana Georgievna and a memorial plaque and a photograph of his father – Zhumakhan, who did not have a grave (according to his mother’s will).
“Sarym Kuderin” peak is located in the Big Alma-Ata Gorge.


Daughter of Zhumakhan Kuderin – Larisa Zhumakhanovna Kuderina (1938)

Larisa Kuderina was born in Alma-Ata on January 17, 1938.
In September 1938, she was exiled with her mother and brother to the village “Ilyich” of the Pakhta-Aral state farm in the Dzhambul region. They returned after the expiration of the exile of their mother to Alma-Ata in 1940.
In childhood Larisa Kuderina was persecuted as the daughter of an enemy of the people.
In 1952 she entered the Pedagogical School in the village of Turgen, participated in amateur activities.
In 1956 (?) she entered the Kazakh State University.
Since 1960, she worked at the Institute of Geology of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, met with K.I. Satpayev – President of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, who knew the father of L.D. Kuderina.
Larisa Zhumakhanovna Kuderina lives in Moscow. She is a Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, President of the International Foundation “Phoenix”, she has been collecting information about her father for more than thirty years
Larisa Zhumakhanovna Kuderina opened a museum “Children to Parents”, dedicated to repressed scientists in the basement of an old residential building on Podsosensky lane in Moscow. A small exhibition includes photographs, documents, books and paintings of the Kuderin’s family.


1. Yeniseeva-Varshavskaya L. Cause of death – execution // Thought. – 2015. – No. 5. – P.27-30
2. Zhurtbay T. My pain, my pride – Alash !: Trilogy. – Astana: Audarma, 2016. – P.522-530

Internet resources

1. Kuderina-Nasonova T. G., Kuderina L. D. The recent past // https://shikardos.ru/text/nedalekoe-proshloe/
2. Kuderina-Nasonova T. G., Kuderina L. D. Near past. – M .: Phoenix, 1994 .– 296 p.
3. Kuderina Larisa Dzhumakhanovna // https://www.sakharov-center.ru/asfcd/auth/?t=author&i=1287
4. About Tatyana Georgievna Kuderina (Russian) // https://www.geni.com/people/%D0%A2%D0%B0%D1%82%D1%8C%D1%8F%D0%BD%D0% B0-% D0% 9A% D1% 83% D0% B4% D0% B5% D1% 80% D0% B8% D0% BD% D0% B0 / 6000000050690082981
5. He died in the team of Lev Myshlyaev at the age of 26. Today he would have turned 75. Sarym Kuderin. Biography pages. // https://risk.ru/blog/190643. – 2011 .– December 5
6. Sarym Kuderin. From the cycle Book of Memory of Departed Friends // http://www.mountain.ru/article/article_display1.php?article_id=8982
7. Devil’s O.V. Kuderina-Nasonova Tatiana Georgievna // https://vrnguide.ru/bio-dic/k/kuderina-nasonova-tatyana-georgievna.html