Tynyshpaev Mukhamedzhan Tynyshpayevich (1879-1937)


Tynyshpaev Mukhamedzhan Tynyshpaevich is a Kazakh public figure, a deputy of the Second State Duma of Russia, a prime minister of the Turkestan autonomy, a member of Alash Orda, the first Kazakh engineer-tracker, an active participant in the design and construction of the Turkestan-Siberian railway.

Mukhamedzhan Tynyshpaev was born in the foothills Zhilandy Makanchi-Sadyrovsky area of Lepsinsk  county of the Semirechinsk oblast on12 May 1879. In 1900 he graduated from Verny gymnasium and entered the Imperial Institute of engineers of ways of communication named after Alexander I in St. Petersburg. In 1905 Tynyshpayev passed his final exams, he became the first Kazakh railway engineer.

On April 3, 1907 Tunushbaev Mukhamedzhan Tunushpaiulu  was elected to the State Duma of II convocation from the indigenous population of Semirechensk area.  He was a member of the Muslim group and the Siberian group.  He was a member of the Agrarian Commission. He was supporter of  the Kazakh national reconciliation and national interests.

After the February revolution of 1917, the Turkestan Committee to resolve on-the-ground management of the Turkestan Krai was established  by decision the Provisional government in Tashkent  in April. This Committee  included  Mukhamedzhan Tynyshpaev, as a former member of 2nd State Duma of Russia. In July 1917, Tynyshpaev, as the delegate of the Semirechensk region, participated in the I Congress of the all-Kyrgyzstan in the Orenburg and was among the delegates at the all-Russian constituent Assembly.

In 1919, when the Soviet power was established in Turkestan and the Steppe region, Tynyshpayev moved to  side of the Soviet power. In 1921 Tynyshpayev was appointed a  head of the Department of water Management of people’s Commissariat of Turkestan in Tashkent. In 1922 the People’s Commissariat of land appointed him to a similar position in Shymkent.

In 1924 he was invited to  work as a teacher of mathematics and physics to the Kazakh pedagogical Institute  opened  in Tashkent. During this period he collected information about the origin of the zhuzes, described the history of the Kazakh clans, collected the table of genealogy of clans, with brief descriptions of the life and death of the khans, batyrs, biys, akyns. He  lectured on this topic in the Turkestan Department of Russian geographical society.

On March 1, 1926 he started to work in Alma-Ata as a chief of the Traffic Department of the Semirechensk gubernia. Under his direction was built the road surfacing  Alma-Ata — Bishkek, was conducted surveys on the construction of the road Alma-Ata — Taldy-Kurgan, was supposed  a new variant of road Almata- Ata -Khorgos.

In January 1927, Turar Ryskulov was included in the Committee to promote the construction of Turksib according at his urgent request . On 3 August 1930 Mukhamedzhan Tynyshpayev was arrested on a denunciation, but after a long investigation criminal evidence was not discovered.  In the next arrest, Tynyshpaev was charged for the events of 1917, when he was briefly Prime Minister of Turkestan autonomy.  On 20 April, 1932 Troika of OGPU  determined  him to 5 years of exile in Voronezh. Under supervision, he worked at the technical Department of Management of construction of new railway line Moscow — Donetsk. After returning from exile in 1936, he went to the construction of the railway Kandagach — Gur’ev, where he caught a bad cold, got sick, and then returned to Tashkent.

On 21 November 1937 he was arrested again, as a former member of “Alash Orda”, and as “enemy of the people”. He was shot. On  29 September, 1959 Mukhamedzhan Tynyshpayev was rehabilitated by the decision by Supreme court of the Kazakh SSR, and he was rehabilitated by the USSR Prosecutor’s office and Military Prosecutor of the Turkestan Military okrug in February 1970.